As used in this part 1, unless the context otherwise requires:
(1) "Administrative unit" means a school district, a board of cooperative services, a multi-district administrative unit, or the state charter school institute, that is providing educational services to exceptional children and that is responsible for the local administration of this article.
(2) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2011, (HB 11-1077), ch. 30, p. 75, 3, effective August 10, 2011.)
(2.5) "Applicable revenues" means those revenues, as defined by rules promulgated by the state board pursuant to this article, that support special education expenditures.
(2.7) "Approved facility school" means an educational program that is operated by a facility to provide educational services to students placed in the facility and that, pursuant to section 22-2-407, has been placed on the list of facility schools that are approved to receive reimbursement for providing those educational services to students placed in the facility. An educational program provided by an administrative unit at a facility is not an approved facility school but is an educational program of the administrative unit that does not require approval by the department.
(3) "Board of cooperative services" means a regional educational services unit created pursuant to article 5 of this title and designed to provide supporting, instructional, administrative, facility, community, or any other services contracted by participating members.
(4) "Child find" means the program component of the IDEA that requires states to find, identify, locate, evaluate, and serve all children with disabilities, from birth to twenty-one years of age. Specific responsibilities for child find are described in section 22-20-118. Child find includes:
(a) Part C child find, which means the program component of IDEA that requires states to find, identify, locate, evaluate, and serve children with disabilities from birth through two years of age; and
(b) Part B child find, which means the program component of IDEA that requires states to find, identify, locate, evaluate, and serve children with disabilities from three to twenty-one years of age.
(5) (a) "Children with disabilities" means:
(I) Those persons from three to twenty-one years of age who, by reason of one or more of the following conditions, are unable to receive reasonable benefit from general education:
(A) Autism spectrum disorders;
(B) A hearing impairment, including deafness;
(C) A serious emotional disability;
(D) An intellectual disability;
(E) Multiple disabilities;
(F) An orthopedic impairment;
(G) Other health impairment;
(H) A specific learning disability;
(I) A speech or language impairment;
(J) Traumatic brain injury;
(K) A visual impairment, including blindness; and
(II) Those persons from birth through two years of age who have been determined to be an infant or a toddler with a disability;
(III) Those persons from three through eight years of age who have been determined pursuant to 34 CFR 300.8 (b) to be children experiencing developmental delays.
(b) Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a) or (b) of this subsection (5), for purposes of child find activities, "children with disabilities" means persons from birth to twenty-one years of age.
(6) "Communication mode or language" means one or more of the following systems or methods of communication applicable to children who are deaf or hard of hearing:
(a) American sign language;
(b) English-based manual or sign systems; or
(c) Oral, aural, or speech-based training.
(7) "Department" means the department of education created and existing pursuant to section 24-1-115, C.R.S.
(8) "District charter school" means a charter school authorized by a school district pursuant to part 1 of article 30.5 of this title.
(8.3) "Early intervening services" means programs and activities for students in kindergarten through grade twelve, with an emphasis on students in kindergarten through grade three, who at the time they receive early intervening services are not identified as children with disabilities, but who need additional academic and behavioral supports in order to succeed in a general education environment.
(8.5) "Early intervention services" means the services and supports specified in section 27-10.5-102 (12), C.R.S., provided to children with disabilities who are less than three years of age.
(8.7) "Educational placement" means the provision of special education services, including but not limited to those points along the continuum of alternative placements. "Educational placement" does not mean a specific place, such as a specific classroom or school.
(9) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2011, (HB 11-1277), ch. 306, p. 1478, 11, effective August 10, 2011.)
(9.5) "Emergency public placement" means a public placement made necessary because of an imminent danger to a child or others.
(10) "Equipment" means that equipment used especially for the instruction or assessment of children with disabilities.
(11) "Evaluation" means:
(a) For purposes of part C child find, procedures used to determine a child's initial and continuing eligibility for part C child find, including but not limited to:
(I) Determining the status of the child in each of the developmental areas;
(II) Identifying the child's unique strengths and needs;
(III) Identifying any early intervention services that might serve the child's needs; and
(IV) Identifying priorities and concerns of the family and resources to which the family has access;
(b) For the purposes of part B child find, procedures used under IDEA for children with disabilities to determine whether a child has a disability and the nature and extent of special education and related services that the child will need.
(12) "Exceptional child" means:
(a) A child defined in subsection (5) of this section as a child with a disability. An administrative unit shall serve every child with a disability from three to twenty-one years of age, and may serve children with disabilities from birth through two years of age.
(b) A child defined in section 22-20-202 (11) as a gifted child. Pursuant to section 22-20-204 (1), an administrative unit shall adopt and submit to the department a program plan to identify and serve gifted children who are at least five years of age.
(12.3) "Facility" means a day treatment center, residential child care facility, or other facility licensed by the department of human services pursuant to section 26-6-104, C.R.S., or a hospital licensed by the department of public health and environment pursuant to section 25-1.5-103, C.R.S.
(12.7) "Foster home" has the same meaning as a "foster care home" as defined in section 26-6-102 (14) and must be licensed by the state department of human services or certified by a county department of human or social services or certified by a child placement agency as defined in section 26-6-102 (7).
(13) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2011, (HB 11-1077), ch. 30, p. 75, 3, effective August 10, 2011.)
(13.3) "Group home" means a congregate care facility licensed by the department of human services pursuant to section 26-6-104, C.R.S.
(13.5) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2011, (HB 11-1077), ch. 30, p. 75, 3, effective August 10, 2011.)
(14) "IDEA" means the federal "Individuals with Disabilities Education Act", 20 U.S.C. sec. 1400 et seq., as amended, and its implementing regulations, 34 CFR part 300 and also 34 CFR part 303 as it pertains to child find.
(15) "Individualized education program" or "IEP" means a written statement for a child with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised in accordance with this part 1 and the rules promulgated by the state board.
(16) "Individual family service plan" or "IFSP" means a written statement for a child from birth through two years of age with a disability, which statement is developed, reviewed, and revised in accordance with part C child find of IDEA and with rules promulgated by the department of human services.
(17) "Institute charter school" means a charter school authorized by the state charter school institute pursuant to part 5 of article 30.5 of this title.
(18) "Least restrictive environment" means that:
(a) To the maximum extent appropriate, children with disabilities, including children in public or private institutions or other care facilities, are educated with children who do not have disabilities; and
(b) Special classes, separate schooling, or other removal of children with disabilities from the general educational environment occurs only if the nature and severity of the disability is such that education in general classes with the use of supplementary aids and services cannot be satisfactorily achieved.
(19) "Literacy mode" means one of the following four systems or methods of achieving literacy applicable to blind children:
(a) "Auditory mode" means any method or system of achieving literacy that depends upon the auditory senses, including the use of readers, taped materials, electronic speech, speech synthesis, or any combination of the above.
(b) "Braille" means the system of reading and writing by means of raised points, commonly known as standard English braille.
(c) "Print enlargement" means any method or system of achieving literacy that includes optical aids to enhance apprehension of printed material, electronic enlargement of printed material, books and textual materials printed in large print, and any combination of the above.
(d) "Regular print mode" means any method or system of achieving literacy that depends upon the apprehension of regular-sized printed material.
(19.3) "Multi-district administrative unit" means a group of two or more school districts that did not form a board of cooperative services but were parties to an agreement existing on January 1, 2011, to provide educational services to exceptional children and to be responsible for the local administration of this article, which group of school districts the department recognized as of January 1, 2011, as an administrative unit.
(19.7) (a) "Parent" means:
(I) A biological or adoptive parent of a child;
(II) A foster parent;
(III) A guardian generally authorized to act as a child's parent, or authorized to make educational decisions for the child, but not the state if the child is a ward of the state;
(IV) An individual acting in the place of a biological or adoptive parent, including but not limited to a grandparent, stepparent, or other relative, and with whom the child lives, or an individual who is legally responsible for the child's welfare; or
(V) An educational surrogate parent assigned by the responsible administrative unit consistent with rules promulgated by the state board in accordance with this article.
(b) (I) Except as provided in subparagraph (II) of this paragraph (b), the biological or adoptive parent, when attempting to act as a parent pursuant to this article, and when more than one party is qualified pursuant to paragraph (a) of this subsection (19.7) to act as a parent, shall be presumed to be the parent for purposes of this subsection (19.7) unless the biological or adoptive parent does not have legal authority to make educational decisions for the child.
(II) If a judicial decree or order identifies a specific person or persons listed in subparagraphs (I) to (IV) of paragraph (a) of this subsection (19.7) to act as the parent of a child or to make educational decisions on behalf of a child, then the person or persons shall be determined to be the parent for purposes of this article.
(20) "Public agency" means a public agency that:
(a) Is not an administrative unit; and
(b) Is legally authorized to place a child in a facility or another out-of-home placement, including but not limited to a group home or a foster home.
(21) "Public placement" means the placement of a child with a disability in a facility or another out-of-home placement, including but not limited to a group home or foster home, by a court or public agency.
(22) "School district" means a school district organized and existing pursuant to law, but shall not include a local college district.
(22.7) "Special education expenditures" means those expenditures that are incurred by an administrative unit, state-operated program, or approved facility school for professional services associated with special education referrals and evaluations of children who may have a disability and the provision of special education services as identified on an individual student's individualized education program. Special education expenditures do not include the costs of the general education program. Special education expenditures shall be supplemental to the general education program and shall be above what is provided by the administrative unit, state-operated program, or approved facility school for general education students and staff and may include:
(a) Special education teachers;
(b) Home-hospital teachers for students with disabilities;
(c) Speech-language pathologists and speech-language pathology assistants;
(d) Specialty teachers;
(e) Special education instructional paraprofessionals;
(f) Educational interpreters;
(g) School nurses;
(h) Occupational therapists and occupational therapy assistants;
(i) Physical therapists and physical therapy assistants;
(j) School psychologists;
(k) School social workers;
(m) Orientation and mobility specialists;
(n) Other special education professionals;
(o) Special education administrators and office support;
(p) Other noncertified or nonlicensed support;
(q) Employee benefits for special education staff;
(r) Supplies, materials, and equipment used for individual students' special education programs and services;
(s) Purchased service contracts for personal services;
(t) Tuition to other administrative units and approved tuition rates to approved facility schools for special education;
(u) Staff travel related to special education;
(v) Professional development for special education staff, or all staff, if the content of the professional development is specific to services for children with disabilities;
(w) Other purchased services related to special education;
(x) Dues, fees, and other expenditures specific to the special education program; and
(y) Parent counseling and training, as defined by the IDEA and its implementing regulations.
(23) "Special education services" or "special education programs" means the services or programs provided to a child with a disability in conformity with the child's IEP or IFSP.
(24) (Deleted by amendment, L. 2011, (HB 11-1077), ch. 30, p. 75, 3, effective August 10, 2011.)
(25) "Specific learning disability" means a disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written. The disorder may manifest itself in the imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations, and includes such conditions as perceptual disabilities, brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, dyslexia, and developmental aphasia. "Specific learning disability" does not include a learning problem that is primarily the result of visual, hearing, or motor disabilities; an intellectual and developmental disability; an emotional disturbance; or an environmental, cultural, or economic disadvantage.
(26) "State board" means the state board of education created and existing pursuant to section 1 of article IX of the state constitution.
(27) "State charter school institute" means the state charter school institute created pursuant to part 5 of article 30.5 of this title.
(28) "State-operated program" means an approved school program supervised by the department and operated by:
(a) The Colorado school for the deaf and the blind;
(b) The department of corrections; or
(c) The department of human services, including but not limited to the division of youth services and the mental health institutes.
Source: L. 73: R&RE, p. 1258, 1. C.R.S. 1963: 123-22-3. L. 77: (5.5) added, p. 1067, 11, effective July 1. L. 79: (1), (3), (4), and (5) amended and (3.4) and (3.7) added, p. 775, 3, effective July 1. L. 81: (5.5) amended, p. 1055, 2, effective June 1. L. 88: (3) amended and (5) repealed, pp. 762, 763, 1, 4, effective May 31. L. 90: (4) amended, p. 1088, 57, effective May 31; (3.4) and (4) amended, p. 1044, 1, effective July 1. L. 93: (1.5) added and (3), (3.4), (4), and (5.5) amended, p. 1640, 30, effective July 1. L. 94: (5.7) added, p. 914, 1, effective July 1. L. 96: (1.7) added, p. 40, 2, effective March 18. L. 97: (5.5) amended, p. 422, 1, effective July 1. L. 2004: (1) and (5.5) amended and (2.5) and (11) added, p. 1624, 22, effective July 1. L. 2006: Entire section amended, p. 317, 2, effective August 7. L. 2007: Entire section amended, p. 1552, 2, effective May 31; (12) amended, p. 1763, 2, effective July 1. L. 2008: (12)(b) and (13) amended and (13.5) added, p. 774, 1, effective May 14; (9) amended, p. 1386, 14, effective May 27; (8.3) and (8.5) added, p. 624, 3, effective July 1. L. 2011: IP, (2), (12), (13), (13.5), (15), and (24) amended, (HB 11-1077), ch. 30, p. 75, 3, effective August 10; (4), (5), (9), (10), IP(12), (12)(a), (14), (18), (20)(b), (21), and (28) amended and (2.5), (2.7), (8.7), (9.5), (12.3), (12.7), (13.3), (19.7), and (22.7) added, (HB 11-1277), ch. 306, p. 1478, 11, effective August 10. L. 2012: (5)(a)(I)(K) and (5)(a)(I)(L) amended, (5)(a)(III) added, and (5)(a)(I)(M) repealed, (HB 12-1345), ch. 188, p. 719, 6, effective May 19. L. 2014: (1) amended and (19.3) added, (HB 14-1208), ch. 71, p. 300, 1, effective March 27; (12)(b) amended, (HB 14-1102), ch. 330, p. 1472, 11, effective August 6. L. 2016: (12.7) amended, (SB 16-189), ch. 210, p. 762, 36, effective June 6. L. 2017: (28)(c) amended, (HB 17-1329), ch. 381, p. 1979, 47, effective June 6. L. 2018: (12.7) amended, (SB 18-092 ), ch. 38 , p. 438, 89 , effective August 8; (25) amended, (SB 18-096), ch. 44, p. 472, 9, effective August 8.
Editor's note: (1) Subsection (4) was amended in House Bill 90-1314. Those amendments were superseded by the amendments to subsection (4) in House Bill 90-1137.
(2) Subsection (12) was originally numbered as subsection (3.4), and the amendments to it in House Bill 07-1244 were harmonized with Senate Bill 07-255 and renumbered as subsection (12).
(3) Amendments to subsection (12) by House Bill 11-1077 and House Bill 11-1277 were harmonized.
Cross references: For the legislative declaration contained in the 2008 act enacting subsections (8.3) and (8.5), see section 1 of chapter 177, Session Laws of Colorado 2008. For the legislative declaration in SB 18-092, see section 1 of chapter 38, Session Laws of Colorado 2018. For the legislative declaration in SB 18-096, see section 1 of chapter 44, Session Laws of Colorado 2018.